Shepherdstown, WV—The incandescent light bulb is no longer the symbol of ideas. Surprisingly, perhaps, the new symbol may be – of all things – a street-highway-lighting pole, which just so happens to be the fundamental element of a new concept called “smart cities.” Through it, existing poles would be retrofitted with sensors and other devices to do things like enhance GPS; monitor seismic activity; measure temperature, humidity, wind speed, wind direction, pollen, and radiation; listen for gun shots; increase or decrease illumination based on traffic conditions; and even recharge delivery drones. The data derived would be sent to other devices on the Internet of things (IoT), to alert first responders, to develop anticipatory algorithms, and for an array of other activities yet to be considered. Are we witnessing the birth – or would it be the adolescence? – of Big Brother? That and other important questions were considered by three experts who comprised the “Smart Cities” panel at the National Lighting Bureau’s 2017 Annual Lighting Forum. The panelists were:
- James R. Benya, P.E., FIES, FIALD, of the Benya Burnett Consultancy;
- Mark S. Lien, LC, CLEP, CLMC, HBDP, LEED BD&C, Industry Relations Manager, Illuminating Engineering Society; and
- Shelli Sedlak, LC, LEED AP, Manager, The Institute, Current, Powered by GE.
EdisonReport Editor and Publisher Randy Reid moderated the panel discussion, something he got under way by asking Jim Benya, “What constitutes a smart city?” Mr. Benya responded that a smart city “uses street lights as a source of data, as a connection point for a distributed-communications system, and to use lighting as we never have before.” He noted that a major change is in the works, however, as telecommunications companies prepare to convert their 4G systems to 5G and, in so doing, increase data in cities by “thousands of times.”
Mr. Lien commented that lighting will be the linchpin that connects all types of disparate devices, in large part because street-/highway-lighting units establish a network of already-established electrical-connection points.
Ms. Sedlak pointed out that San Diego has created the United States’ largest connected smart cities platform, establishing an interconnected, sensory network. At this point, drivers will be able to connect to it via their smart phones to learn, among other things, where the nearest available parking space is located. But that’s just a minor element of a system that even now can do much more.
Mr. Benya noted that the new technology will enable real-time lighting-output control that will support a range of uses and users, including first responders. As he also noted, however, the conversion of high-intensity-discharge- (HID-) lighting sources to light-emitting diode (LED) sources will lower street- and highway-lighting-energy consumption and cost by 50%. An additional 25% decrease will be derived from dimming outdoor lighting units when less light is needed by virtue of natural-light availability and/or fewer vehicles and pedestrians needing light.
The biggest fear of the lighting community, the panelists seemed to agree, was the shrinking role of lighting. In other words, as sensors and other equipment give the lighting poles important new capabilities, lighting itself may be taken for granted by those who do not understand lighting’s many challenges, and seem to believe “lighting is easy.” As the panelists emphasized, lighting is not easy. Nor will pole retrofit be easy.
Lighting poles will experience a significant amount of added weight, especially when 5G telecommunications equipment is added. There will also be the need to harden installations for security purposes. In other words, the development of smart cities will mean that almost all existing lighting poles throughout the world will need new, sturdier foundations. But that’s not all. Mr. Benya commented, “A substantial network of fiber-optic data cables will be needed to support the data backhaul, given that the mesh-network technology now being used for lighting is not even remotely capable of supporting telecom or advanced high-resolution cameras. Without upgrading, the existing system’s capabilities will be limited to lighting and IoT sensors with limited data volume and speed.”
Mr. Lien expressed fears about privacy issues, especially so given the use of facial recognition and smart-phone beacons, among other devices and technologies that will give data owners and users the ability to learn where almost anyone is at any time. And who will own and use the data? he asked.
Watch and listen to the panel discussion free of charge at https://nlb.org/smart-cities-connected-lighting/.
The National Lighting Bureau is an independent, IRS-recognized not-for-profit, educational foundation that has served as a trusted lighting-information source since 1976. The Bureau provides its services to the public free of charge, thanks to the generous funding of the organization’s sponsors: professional societies, trade associations, labor unions, manufacturers, and agencies of the U.S. government, including:
- Current, Powered by GE;
- Forest Lighting;
- Illuminating Engineering Society (IES);
- Imperial Lighting Maintenance Company;
- interNational Association of Lighting Management Companies (NALMCO);
- International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers (IBEW);
- Lighting Controls Association (LCA);
- Lutron Electronics Company, Inc.;
- National Electrical Contractors Association (NECA);
- National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA);
- S. General Services Administration; and
- ZLED Lighting.